Weather and Climate in Nepal
A landlocked country that is bordered by China in the north and India in the remaining east, south, and west is Nepal. The country is geographically divided into three regions; Himalayan region; cover and altitude above 3,353 m have alpine climate, Mountain region; is very pleasant throughout the year with cool mornings and nights in the winters and Terai region; has hot and humid climate. The natural zones of Nepal range from subtropical jungles covering the valleys in the southern part of the country to the tundra zones and eternal glaciers in the northern part where the majestic Himalayas are situated. The months truly define the seasons of the country. The summers are little hot and damp as the monsoon rains bring moisture from the Indian Ocean in June-August, whereas you the winters are dry and cool with the Himalayas being covered with clean white snow from mid-December to February. The weather is dry and stable during spring (March-May) and autumn (September-November). However, due to Nepal’s vast range of diversified land orientation as well as its amazing climatic variation Nepal enjoys six different seasons in the following months:
|Monsoon||Barsha||Late June - Mid September|
Climate of Himalayan Region of Nepal
In around the glove, Himalaya has the greatest physical feature in Earth. That’s the region, Himalayas is climatologically one of its least known areas. Climate of a region can be classified according to interrelated elements such as the amount of rainfall, the temperature, type of vegetation and elevation. The two factors, annual rainfall and temperature are principal elements of climate. The amount of solar radiation coming to the earth and the wind current is the principle determinants of rainfall and temperature. The surface of the Earth facing towards sun is changing continuously when the earth moves in its orbit. The shift is such that the northern hemisphere gets more radiation in the month be¬tween March and September, which is the summer season of northern hemisphere. The south¬ern hemisphere receives more radiation during month’s between September and March i.e. summer of the southern hemisphere. Climate of Nepal is extremely varied and is controlled by the monsoonal winds and the physiography. It ranges from seasonably humid subtropical to semiarid alpine. In Nepal, monsoon is major source of rainfall in summer and approximately 80% of the total annual total rainfall occurs from June to September and whereas western wind is responsible for winter precipitation and limited precipitation occurs from November to February. Knowledge of the climate of Himalayan Region of Nepal comes from travelers, migrants, invaders, traders and missionaries who have crossed its high passes for centuries in the course of trade, religion and war; from the thousands of pilgrims who make the arduous journey every year to the sacred places in the Himalaya; and from explorers and mountaineers who have climbed its peaks and studied its topography, geology and natural history. But these Himalayan journeys have naturally been confined to a few clear periods of good weather before or after the monsoon. Even the Antarctic continent is better known than the Himalaya and systematic climatological data have been recorded for over twdi decades at the South Pole. However, in recent years aerial surveys and meteorological satellites have begun to provide us with the kind of information on the Himalaya we have never had before: its cloud and snow cover, the output of its rivers and the movement of its glaciers and avalanches. These, with the observations made at hill-stations in the foot-hills, have to be used to build up a broad picture of the climatology of the Himalaya.
Weather over the Himalayan Region of Nepal
The basic patterns of weather and climate over the Himalaya are governed by the summer and winter monsoon systems of Asia. These are often pictured as giant land and sea: breezes which blow across the subcontinent once a year with remarkable regularity. In addition, the Himalaya is affected by subcontinent from west to east in winter. There are two of wet weather in the Himalayan region: the with brought by the ‘western disturbances’ and summer rain by the summer monsoon winds. The western Himalaya, beyond the reach of the receives most of its precipitation in winter and the cool eastern Himalaya, the heaviest and most the precipitation in summer. The post-monsoon month’s October and November are the least clouded and most delight the seasons in the Himalaya. These beautiful seasons, the mountains, the rivers, the forests, the places, the hospitality and nevertheless the welcoming and always smiling Nepalese are what attract travellers from the different corners of the world to come and visit Nepal once in their life.
Distribution of Climatic Zones in Nepal
THE HIGH MOUNTAINS ( NORTH OF NEPAL)
The high mountains have an alpine climate with four seasons.
Winter (December to February)
Temperatures are very low (below zero) and snowfalls are high.
Spring (March to May)
Temperatures rise and rainfall is low.
Summer (June to August)
Temperatures reach 10 to 15° and rainfall is moderate (100 to 150 mm per month).
Autumn (September to November)
Temperatures drop progressively and rainfall is low.
THE CENTRAL MOUNTAINS AND VALLEYS
The mountains and the valleys located in the center of Nepal have a temperate subtropical climate with a rainy season and a dry season.
Rainy season (June to September)
Temperatures reach 25° in the east and 30° in the west. Rainfall is abundant.
Dry season (October to May)
Temperatures drop steadily until January (10 to 15°) and then rise to May (25° in the east, 30° in the west). Rainfall is very low or nonexistent.
THE PLAIN ( SOUTH OF NEPAL)
The plain has a subtropical climate with a rainy season and a dry season.
Rainy season (June to September)
Temperatures are high (32°) and rainfall is abundant.
Dry season (October to May)
Temperatures drop until January (20°) and strongly rise until May (35°). Rainfall is very low or nonexistent.